Thus, your study should seek to contextualize its findings within the larger body of research. Research must always be of high quality in order to produce knowledge that is applicable outside of the research setting.
Methodology was a central concern of Durkheim, Marx and Weber, who, respectively, attempted to demonstrate that they had developed a distinctive approach to the study of society and therefore to knowledge. By demonstrating the validity of new investigative techniques, they contributed to the development of sociology as a distinctive discipline.
In sociology, a central aspect of methodology l has been a comparison between sociology and the natural sciences. Since the experimental method is usually inapplicable in the social sciences, sociologists, therefore, have developed new techniques to achieve a degree of VALIDITY which corresponds to that of the natural sciences.
Alternatively, they have sought to develop methods which do not seek to emulate the natural science goal of scientific laws, but are more appropriate to the nature of social reality. Methodology the study of the structure, logical organization, methods, and means of activity.
Methodology, in this broad definition, is a necessary part of any activity, insofar as the latter becomes the object of consciousness, learning, and rationalization. Normative methodology deals with the directions and norms that determine the nature and sequence of specific kinds of activity; descriptive methodology is concerned with the description of completed activities.
In both cases the basic function of methodology is to organize and regulate the process of cognition or to serve as a control in the practical transformation of an object. In modern literature on the subject, methodology is usually understood in a narrower sense as the scientific method, that is, the study of the structure, forms, and means of scientific inquiry.
The scientific method describes the components of scientific research—its object, the subject matter of analysis, the tasks and problems of research, and the complete set of research methods necessary for solving a given problem. The scientific method also deals with the sequence of procedures in the problem-solving process.
The most important applications of the scientific method lie in the formulation of the problem it is here that researchers most often commit methodological errors that lead to pseudo-problems or that considerably hamper the achieving of resultsthe precise determination of the subject of investigation, the formulation of a scientific theory, and the verification of the achieved result from the standpoint of its truth, that is, the correspondence between the result and the subject of investigation.
The rudiments of methodological knowledge can be observed even in the early stages of cultural development. For example, in ancient Egypt geometry took the form of methodological directions that determined the sequence of measuring procedures in the division and redistribution of land.
Ancient Greek philosophy first dealt with the problem of the conditions for gaining knowledge; Aristotle, who considered the logical system that he created to be an organon—a universal instrument for acquiring true knowledge—made the most significant contribution to the analysis of this problem.
On the whole, however, the problems of methodology did not occupy an independent place in the system of knowledge until modern times; these problems were considered part of the study of natural philosophy or logic. The father of methodology proper was the English philosopher F.
Bacon, who first proposed the idea of equipping science with a system of methods and who elaborated this view in his Novum organum. His formulation of the inductive, empirical approach to scientific knowledge was also of great importance for the subsequent development of methodology.
Since that time the problem of method has become one of the central problems in philosophy.
Initially, it wholly coincided with the problem of the conditions for achieving truth, and its discussion was severely burdened with concepts from natural philosophy. Adhering to the thesis, which is correct in itself, that only a true method leads to true knowledge, many modern philosophers tried to discover this true method.
They assumed that the only true method was simply hidden from direct observation and only needed to be discovered, clarified, and made generally accessible.
The logical structure of the method did not yet present a problem for them. The next step in the development of methodology was taken by the French thinker Descartes. After formulating the problem of cognition as the problem of the relation between subject and object, Descartes first raised the question of the specific nature of thought and of its irreducibility to the simple and direct reflection of reality; thus arose the special and systematic discussion of cognition, that is, the question of how true knowledge can be achieved—on what intellectual grounds and by what methods of reasoning.
Methodology began to serve as the philosophical foundation of cognition.
Another direction in the specialization of methodology was associated with English empiricism, chiefly with the studies of Locke, who advanced the sensualist theory of knowledge, and Hume, who substantiated empiricism by criticizing theoretical knowledge from the standpoint of skepticism; here the intensified search for methods applicable to experimental science was given philosophical support.
Until the German philosopher Kant, however, the problems of methodology were interwoven with the theory of knowledge. Kant was the first to substantiate the special status of methodological knowledge by making a distinction between the constitutive and regulative principles of cognition, that is, a distinction between the objective content of knowledge and the form by means of which it is organized into a system.
This gave rise to the analysis of knowledge as a specific activity with its own particular forms of internal organization. Work in this direction was continued by J. Fichte, whose philosophy was an attempt to construct a universal theory of activity.
The objectively most important result obtained by German classical idealism in the study of the problems of methodology consisted in the emphasis placed on the role of the dialectic as a universal method of cognition and of intellectual activity in general. It was precisely this result that was retained and given a fundamentally new materialist interpretation in Marxist-Leninist philosophy.
Dialectical materialism was the last stage in the formation of the philosophical foundations of the scientific method. Dialectical materialism arose during a period of widespread scientific progress, when theoretical natural science had begun to rid itself of natural philosophical speculations; it was based on the concrete scientific study of the basic forms of the motion of matter.
Dialectical materialism was a new type of philosophy—the science of the most general laws governing the development of nature, society, and thought, and, as such, the general methodology of scientific investigation.
The most important aspect of Marxist-Leninist methodology is that it is not only an instrument for gaining theoretical knowledge, but it also provides the means for the revolutionary transformation of reality based on the principles of scientific communism. Hence, Marxism-Leninism was the first philosophy to embody the ideal of attaining a universal methodology governing the activity of socially developed man.
Its dual orientation toward scientific theory and practice enables Marxism-Leninism to play an ever increasing role in social practice and spiritual and cultural life, assuming the role of a universal methodology. The rapid growth of methodological research and its expanding role in scientific inquiry have been characteristic of scientific development in the 20th century.
There are two reasons for this. First, scientific knowledge assimilated increasingly complex objects of natural and social reality.The Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE) and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) A Guide to Gender-Sensitive Research Methodology.
Methodology, theory, paradigm, algorithm, and method. The methodology is the general research strategy that outlines the way in which research is to be undertaken and, among other things, identifies the methods to be used in it.
These methods, described in the methodology, define the means or modes of data collection or, sometimes, how a specific result is to be calculated. 5 is not only important for the researcher to know the research techniques/ methods, but also the scientific approach called methodology.
Research Approaches. Selecting and Applying Research Methods. Establishing the main premises of methodology is pivotal for any research because a method or technique that is not reliable for a certain study context will lead to unreliable results, and the outcomes’ interpretation (and overall academic article) will not be valuable.
Module 2: Study Design and Sampling Study Design. Cross-sectional studies are simple in design and are aimed at finding out the prevalence of a phenomenon, problem, attitude or issue by taking a snap-shot or cross-section of the regardbouddhiste.com obtains an overall picture as it stands at the time of the study.
As with the first the Second Edition of Research Methodology is designed specifically for students with no previous experience or knowledge of research and research methodology.
The practical step-by-step approach provides students with strong content and a conceptual framework. Discussions relating to concepts and theory range from 4/5(17).