Food Safety Information 1. Introduction The purpose of the administrative work concerning food safety is to protect the health of the public through the strengthening measures for the assurance of food safety. The work includes various responsibilities. They also include the provision of related information to consumers and businesses.
Over the past sixty years, a new branch of science called biotechnology has been developed and expanded. Scientists have learnt how to alter the genetic code in animals and plants, changing their characteristics, since the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA by Francis Crick and James Watson 7.
In order to obtain more beneficial sugars or vitamins in specific foods and to decrease harmful substances in food, scientists created these genetically modified foods. Soybeans, canola, corn, and cottonseed oil were the most usual foods to be genetically altered 7.
Many people around the world believe that genetically modified foods are bad for the environment and harmful to the body while others believe that it is an important discovery for the future and harmless to the body, therefore making this topic very delicate and controversial 7.
How Plants Are Genetically Modified: In the process of transgenesis, genes from a different species are inserted, which is a form of Outline for genetically modified food gene transfer.
In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. To do this artificially may require transferring genes as part of an attenuated virus genome or physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host using a microsyringe, or as a coating on gold nanoparticles fired from a gene gun 1.
However, other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the Outline for genetically modified food of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants, and the ability of lentiviruses to transfer genes to animal cells. In order for an organism to become genetically modified successfully, the method should involve the insertion or deletion of genes.
Organisms that could be conventionally bred usually only allow the artificial transfer of genes. The genes that are inserted can come from species between kingdoms, bacteria to plant or in the same kingdom, plant to plant.
The inserted DNA then has to be genetically altered or modified slightly to efficiently and correctly express inside the host organism 7. A form of horizontal gene transfer is during the process of transgenesis when the genes from a different species are inserted, which can also naturally occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for some reason.
One of the main negative effects of genetic modifications on plants is the unintended harm on the surrounding environment and organisms.
Based on scientific studies, high mortality rates occurred in Monarch butterfly caterpillars due to the pollen from genetically modified corn. The wind blew the pollen onto the milkweed plants in neighboring fields, which were the homes for Monarch butterfly caterpillars.
This caused these organisms to suffer and die, because of the consummation of some pollen from the genetically modified corn 1. In conclusion, genetically modified toxins can kill many species of insect larvae indiscriminately but it is not possible that scientists can develop of genetically modified toxin that only kills pests that damage crops, while remaining harmless to all other insects.
A positive feature about using genetically modified foods is that the use of insecticide is much more minimal than the use of it on organic foods. In the past to protect and prevent harmful insects, large amounts of insecticide were sprayed over the crops.
This was because biotechnology was not properly developed 7. The amount of insecticide greatly affected the surrounding environment negatively, since the insecticide would seep into the soil and underground into clean water.
Genetic engineering has switched places with insecticides, creating a solution to this problem since insecticides will no longer be needed. Furthermore, plants can now grow in environments that they usually could not, due to genetic modifications in plants. In the past, plants would depend on having a certain type of soil or climate in the surrounding environment to be able to grow, and could not be able so if viruses, fungi, or bacteria were present.
Due to genetic modifications, the plants are now able to grow and thrive in a variety of environments. Even viruses, fungi and bacteria, which are known to be able to cause plant diseases, can prevent a plant from growing in a certain environment 1.
Genetic modifications have however made possible for plants to grow and thrive in these types of environments. Plant biologists have been working to create plants with genetically-engineered resistance to diseases to make them stable in an environment, and an antifreeze gene from cold water fish has been introduced into plants such as tobacco and potato.
With this antifreeze gene, these plants are able to tolerate cold temperatures. This article talks about how genes are exchanged between plants via pollen. Two different ways can be used to make sure that non-target species will not receive the unintended introduced genes from genetically modified plants.
Those are creating genetically modified plants that are male sterile and do not produce any pollen or modifying the genetically modified plants, making the pollen not contain the introduced gene. Creating buffer zones around fields of genetically modified crops are also another possible solution 4.
Impact of Genetically Modified Foods on the Economy: Since creating and bringing genetically modified foods to the market are a very lengthy and costly process, there are many impacts of these products on the economy. Firstly, the biotech companies would like to ensure a profitable return on their investment in the future 5.
The researching and testing of genetically modified foods are also quite expensive, since these experiments have to be conducted on a regular and permanent base in order to have zero side effects when the product is consumed.genetically modified food.
Their results, as published in the International Journal of Biological Sciences, pointed toward kidney and liver damage in rats fed GM corn. I began to research where exactly Monsanto corn appeared in my family’s diet. With a little online sleuthing, I learned.
In , the planting of million hectares of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) by 18 million farmers in 28 countries was reported (James, ).To guarantee the traceability of the food/feed chain and the freedom of choice for the consumer, legislations concerning the detection and quantification of GMOs have been established by the relevant competent authorities worldwide (Kamle et.
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