There was no [Internet] censorship and no editor. But after I was arrested, many bloggers stopped because of me. Upon his early release as part of a presidential pardon, Nay Phone Latt established the independent Myanmar Bloggers Society and a nongovernmental organization, Myanmar ICT for Development Organization MIDOwhich disseminates information about the Internet and holds training sessions on how to blog for the grassroots population. Because Burma has one of the lowest Internet penetration rates in the world, with less than 1 percent of the national population online, according to the International Telecommunication Union, the loosening was viewed widely at the time as a limited concession to press freedom.
The Center for Democracy and Technology is also facilitating discussions about a code of conduct between academics, activists, think-tanks, and representatives of some of the companies named in this report.
Details of these codes are still under development and have yet to be announced publicly. These standards and practices should serve not only as a catalyst and compass for corporate responsibility, but also as a buffer for companies operating in a political environment where freedom of expression is restricted.
Such defense mechanisms should include all possible means, from transparency to non-collaboration and even resistance, to help these companies avoid aiding or colluding with human rights abusers. While many of the principles in a meaningful code of conduct are the same as those raised in currently proposed legislation discussed belowit is important to have these same principles in each, since each reinforces the other, one may be established or signed into law before the other, and it also remains to be seen whether the final version of legislation will fully include the following points, all of which we believe to be an essential minimum: Maximize user data protection: Retain as little user data as possible for the shortest amount of time possible.
Greatly improve disclosure to users regarding the ways in which their data will be shared with third parties.
Companies should include text on all user log-in pages, written in clear language and displayed in a prominent place on the page, informing the user of how and where their data is retained and under what conditions it may be shared with governments making clear which ones if the company is bound to share the data with more than one government in order to be legally compliant as well as other third parties.
Obscure clauses in user agreements and terms of service are not sufficient or ethically adequate. Build maximum encryption and privacy protection functions into the tools offered to Chinese users and educate users about their existence and uses.
Respect and uphold a rights-based rule of law: Do not initiate censorship that has not been specifically ordered in writing by the Chinese government via a legally binding process. Businesses should not be forced to shoulder the moral burden and financial cost of political censorship.
That burden, and the moral responsibility that goes along with it, should be shifted back to the Chinese government, where it belongs. Do not comply with oral, undocumented requests for censorship. This includes manual deletion of content in addition to the filtering of it.
Challenge in court every order to censor political speech. Do not comply without a court order. The Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman has declared that foreign Internet companies must follow Chinese law.
Such a formal legal process would include: Work with the U. None of these goals are inconsistent with goals and aspirations recently expressed by Chinese government officials.
Maximize service integrity and Chinese user trust: Clearly and visibly inform users that they have complied with legally binding government requests to filter or otherwise censor content that the user is trying to access. In other words, companies must pledge honesty to the user, and not engage in such dishonest practices as triggering a browser error page that implies technical problems or user error, when in fact the real reason is censorship.
To the maximum extent legally possible, inform the user about who is responsible which corporate entity and department, which government ministry and department for the filtering or censorship of each piece of content the user is attempting to access or post to the web.
This process should provide the user with the ability to appeal anonymously and securely if she so wishes.
Record-keeping for greater accountability and user trust: Keep written documentation of exactly what terms and web addresses they are asked to censor by the Chinese government.
This documentation should include a precise explanation of exactly what local law is being violated by the use of each word or phrase or URL, as well as precise information about which government office or authority ordered the filtering of each word, phrase, or URL.Special Technical Communities (STCs) are self-sustaining online communities of computing professionals and students) who share a common technical, geographic, career, or other interest.
Aug 09, · Watch video · How does the First Amendment apply to social media and online communities? In the wake of Alex Jones’ banishment from Facebook, Spotify, YouTube and Apple, questions have been raised whether. community of more than 7, novelists, journalists, poets, es-sayists, playwrights, editors, publishers, translators, agents, and online censorship is a broad-scale and daily attack PEN presents a list of 80 cases of internet users who have been targeted or punished by the government for their online expression.
China’s cyber. So far, Webb has documented evidence of censorship at the White House, NASA, the National Science Foundation, and nine federal agencies, including the Environmental Protection Agency. In some cases, the purge appears to have been ordered by senior leadership; in others, scientists censor themselves to avoid attention or consequences.
In an HTTPS-only world that makes such granularized censorship impossible, the government's only direct censorship option is to block the site entirely.
That might still leave governments with tenable censorship options if critical speech and dissenting activity only happened on certain sites, like devoted blogs or message boards.
POLICY BRIEFING Suicide and the Online Environment government to step in to block/censor these sites. However, we believe that such an guidance resource to support moderators of small to medium scale online communities.