The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river systemlargely corresponding to modern-day Iraqnortheastern Syriasoutheastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Agesthe Renaissanceand the Enlightenmentas well as Christian culture. Alexander the Great In Homeric literature, and right up until the time of Alexander the Greatfor example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotuswe see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East. Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners.
Summary[ edit ] According to Keeley's book, modern western societies are not more violent or war-prone than historical tribes. The chart is based on War before Civilization.
Keeley conducts an investigation of the archaeological evidence for prehistoric violence, including murder and massacre as well as war. He also looks at nonstate societies of more recent times — where we can name the tribes and peoples — and their propensity for warfare.
It has long been known, for example, that many tribes of South America 's tropical forest engaged in frequent and horrific warfare. Keeley says peaceful societies are an exception. Those that did not are almost universally either isolated nomadic groups for whom flight is an optiongroups of defeated refugeesor small enclaves under the protection of a larger modern state.
Despite the undeniable carnage and effectiveness of modern warfare, the evidence shows that tribal warfare is on average 20 times more deadly than 20th-century warfare, whether calculated as a percentage of total deaths due to war or as average deaths per year from war as a percentage of the total population.
Prompting some to call it the first race war   The Yellowknives tribe in Canada was effectively obliterated by massacres committed by Dogrib Indiansand disappeared from history shortly thereafter. These mass killings occurred well before any contact with the West. More than a third of the Yanomamo males, on average, died from warfare.
The natives' pre-Columbian ancient practice of using human scalps as trophies is well documented. Iroquois routinely slowly tortured to death captured enemy warriors see Captives in American Indian Wars for details. In some regions of the American Southwestthe violent destruction of prehistoric settlements is well documented and during some periods was even common.
For example, the large pueblo at Sand Canyon in Coloradoalthough protected by a defensive wallwas almost entirely burned, artifacts in the rooms had been deliberately smashed, and bodies of some victims were left lying on the floors.
After this catastrophe in the late thirteenth century, the pueblo was never reoccupied. For example, at Crow Creek in South Dakotaarchaeologists found a mass grave containing the remains of more than men, women, and children who had been slaughteredscalpedand mutilated during an attack on their village a century and a half before Columbus's arrival ca.
The Crow Creek massacre seems to have occurred just when the village's fortifications were being rebuilt. All the houses were burned, and most of the inhabitants were murdered. The survivors appear to have been primarily young women, as their skeletons are underrepresented among the bones; if so, they were probably taken away as captives.
Certainly, the site was deserted for some time after the attack because the bodies evidently remained exposed to scavenging animals for a few weeks before burial.
In other words, this whole village was annihilated in a single attack and never reoccupied. Keeley observes that tactical methods by civilized soldiers were not very good and that primitive methods were actually better. Indigenous groups in many areas of the world successfully defended and defeated multiple European colonization campaigns for decades due to primitive unorthodox warfare techniques like smaller mobile units, using small arms as opposed to artillery, open formations, frequent uses of ambushes and raids, surprise attacks, destruction of infrastructure e.
European conquests were greatly helped by ecological changes like diseases, viruses, and bacteria in defeating many indigenous groups since such conditions eliminated more indigenous people than did any armed conflict.
The defeat of the Inca and the Aztecs are examples. Sometimes, primitive groups had better military foresight than civilized counterparts. For example, when the Eipo of Highland Irian were contacted via a plane, they understood that planes could be used to bombard enemies before the Europeans.
Many primitive techniques are preserved in modern times as guerrilla warfare. Other reviewers have noted that Keeley failed to show if tribal warfare cases were "typical or common, rather than relatively isolated aberrations.The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order is an expansion of the Foreign Affairs article written by Samuel Huntington that hypothesized a new post-Cold War world order.
Prior to the end of the Cold War, societies were divided by ideological differences, such as the struggle between democracy and communism. Sep 12, · The philosophical backdrop to Huntington's "The Clash of Civilizations" is the Hegel inspired thought (like Fukuyama's "End of History") that the fall of the Berlin Wall marks the end of human conflict with the eventual victory of Western Liberalism, Huntington opposes this by suggesting that conflicts are only about to take on a Author: אני.
Early Civilizations. Chapter Summary.
an important early civilization was able to flourish in an area known as the Fertile Crescent. This agricultural revolution gave birth to a collection of independent city-states known collectively as Mesopotamia.
The people of this area—Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and others—were able to. The Clash of Civilizations is a hypothesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world.
The American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington argued that future wars would be fought not between countries, but between cultures, and that Islamic extremism would become the biggest . The elevator pitch for Niall Ferguson‘s “Civilization: The West and the Rest” is simple: Western civilization has risen to dominate world affairs over the last five hundred years, a record unmatched in world history and at odds with its population and geography relative to other countries and civilizations, due to six “killer apps” that have provided an .
Some possible precipitating factors are already in place. How the West reacts to them will determine the world’s future.